Bilateral contracts are an integral part of the working relationship between airports and airlines. In the United States, the three types of airport use agreements are the residual method, the clearing method and the hybrid method. As part of a residual agreement, the financial risk of the host airport is borne by the signatory airlines and, in return, the signatory airlines pay reduced fares for users. However, under a compensation agreement, airports bear their own financial risks in the absence of a undersigned airline. A hybrid agreement combines the characteristics of residual and compensatory agreements. Under a hybrid agreement, for example, airports generally bear their own financial risks in operating the terminal, while the signatory airlines take responsibility for the financial risks associated with operating the airfield. The purpose of this document is to determine whether these three types of trade agreements affect the operational effectiveness of airports. Based on annual data from 59 U.S. Hub airports for 2009-2016, we find that airports with residual agreements tend to have lower operational efficiency. This means that, although the signatory airlines pay advantageous airport fees and charges under a residual agreement, an increase in airport inefficiency may jeopardize the potential benefits of the agreement. The bilateral system is based on the Chicago Convention and related multilateral treaties.

The Chicago Convention was signed in December 1944 and has governed international air services ever since. the convention also contains a number of annexes covering issues such as aviation safety, safety monitoring, seaworthiness, navigation, environmental protection and facilities (acceleration and departure at airports). 18 Under the Construction Order, the Department must include the following requirement for airport capital projects at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport: «Facilities and buildings over 5,000 square metres of gross occupied or $2 million in total project cost must contain at least one design criterion within the meaning of this section. Project design and management teams are required to achieve the Leed Silver assessment level [33-38 points-no 2003-108, No. 2 (Exh. A), 12-9-03]. The California Building Standards Commission sets revised building standards every three years. The current construction code, known as CalGreen, serves as a resource for best performance performance practices, which can be used and integrated into the airport`s contractual language. An excerpt from CalGreen can be found on page A11 as an appendix. In the absence of specific guidelines on sustainable design at airports or regulatory requirements, airport operators can set their own specifications for compliance with the language of the contract, or even refer to contractors to certain general resources available to the sector, including the «Sustainable Airport Manual, SAM» chapter, sustainable design and construction.

SAM is a joint effort of the air port industry to offer airports around the world a LEED style, an airport-specific guide, and is therefore a resource available free of charge to all airports. In addition, airport managers may indicate in contracts that companies must meet the requirements of a LEED standard when designing and designing the project.

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